Archive for the ‘Uncategorized’ Category

What’s Going On Here

Author: Gary Hart

A confession: I don’t understand politics anymore.  Major changes since my days of service and involvement include social media, small dollar fund raising (enabled by social media), identity politics, the happy explosion of women leaders, the emergence of little known candidates on the national scene, every person a pundit era, and much more.

All these changes strengthen democracy.  But they also make the practice of democracy less predictable and less controllable.  The political stage is much larger.  And no one manages it.

Look at what Donald Trump has done to the Republican Party.  Look at chaos in Iowa.  Look at a 30 something small town Mayor becoming a top tier presidential candidate.  Everyday Americans think no one is in charge, and they are right.

Democracy is richer, but at the price of public confidence in political institutions.

Typically, we want a show.  But we want a sense that adults are running the show.

One of the prices of the current show is the disappearance of statesmen (of both genders).  America surges when it is led by men and women of experience, training, depth, gravitas, and confidence.

There they were during and after World War II.  They created a new world order out of ruins.  Up until about three years ago, that order based on allied Western democracies managed global affairs reasonably well.  Now it is being shredded by a President who doesn’t care to understand it.  Statesmanship be damned.

If you have no taste or talent for diplomacy on a grand scale, just shrink the stage and fill the void with unwinnable skirmishes.  At least your “base” will be entertained.  Who would have thought to reduce domestic and global politics to a game show.

There is a price to be paid, however, for politics as an amateur hour.  It is the loss of confidence in government.  Unbound by the structures and institutions established by our Constitution, and ignorance of them, virtually anyone can come off the bench and take a hammer to 240 years of experience.

This is the price of presidential assassinations, Watergate, Vietnam, the Pentagon papers, and a range of extra-Constitutional activities.  When Americans lose confidence in their government, they conclude they can elect anyone and it won’t matter.

In the democratic world, governments are elected and then re-elected or replaced.  Citizen trust is required to lend a government legitimacy.  When trust, or confidence, is forfeited, a government sacrifices legitimacy.

But Americans’ confidence in their government has not only been sacrificed by the events already mentioned but also by a drumbeat of attacks on our government by those who seek to manage it.  Three or more decades ago, it became fashionable for candidates for office to attack the very government (“Washington”) they were seeking to participate in.

It is one thing to do this during an era such as Watergate, or when an administration or president or a single Party goes off the rails, and quite another to claim that the whole system of government (“Washington”) is corrupt and illegitimate and not to be trusted.

The assault on “Washington” has lost some steam given the number of elected and appointed officials going through the revolving door of office-lobbying-office-lobbying, etc., and never returning home.  Washington, it turns out, is not so bad after you get there.

The issue is the protection and preservation of democracy itself.  Change is a constant and democracy must adapt to social, cultural, and political changes.  Democracy is, after all, not a rigid structure.  It is rather a set of principles, rules, and processes.

We were bequeathed a Republic…if we can keep it.  Right now we are not doing a very good job at keeping it.

 

Crossing the Line

Author: Gary Hart

These tumultuous times, encouraged by a chaotic president, have been a reminder of the best advice I ever received and have previously written about.  The late Senator Mike Mansfield, then Majority Leader of the Senate, approached me on the Senate floor and without prompting said this: “Draw a line.  Never cross it.”

It took little reflection to know intuitively his meaning.  If confronted with a choice between doing what is politically expedient and doing what is right, always do what is ethical and moral regardless of the cost.

I’ve thought much about this over the many years since.  He was saying at least two things.  Like much of life, politics is fleeting, but your conscience always remains.  And a political career, holding high office, is nothing if you lose your moral compass.

“Profile in courage” votes do not happen often.  Many votes do not have a moral or ethical dimension.  They are in the gray area where right and wrong are vague or not in evidence.

The one dimension that came easiest to me had to do with care for the needy, those to whom Fortune had paid no visit.  This is where my religious training and human instincts took over.   My principal purpose in office was to work toward a more just society.

This week, however, we had a monumental demonstration of almost an entire Party crossing a line.  Most offered little or no justification for doing so.  Others offered lame, even pathetic excuses that were transparent, even laughable.

One wonders whether those Senators will be invited to address classes in civic virtue at home universities of the sort now being offered at Metropolitan State University in Denver.  Probably not.

Out of the gloom of this self-serving, tribal era we must hope that a renaissance of civic virtue may emerge.  There are signs of a change of business ethics that puts customers, workers, and climate concerns ahead of profits and shareholder interests.  Young people are taking the lead in convincing parents and older generations to protect their future interests.  A few cracks, not many, are showing in the otherwise lockstep endorsement by evangelical leaders of every destructive action by the president.

One wishes that more would be heard from mainstream religious leaders about the great error of crossing the line, of calling untruths for what they are, of condemning divisive behavior, of passing judgment on racism.

Where is the leader with the soul of an Abraham Lincoln?  Instead, large segments of our society reward and chant the praises of an anti-Lincoln.  Whole societies and nations can lose their collective soul.  It happened to Germany in the 1930s.  It can happen even in America if the dogs of nationalism are loosed to devour the principles of our Constitution.

Every generation of Americans is called upon to redeem our nation’s promise, especially when it is under assault from leaders and their followers who cross the line every day.  This requires an inner compass that points true North and shows we lose our way and our reason for existence when we abandon our principles.

The large and growing divisions in our country are not happening by accident.  They are the result of a president who calculates every day how to drive the wedges ever deeper.  He appeals, skillfully and dementedly, to fear, anxiety, anger, grievance, and even hatred.  He consciously appeals, not to the better angels of our nature, but instead to our worst instincts.

Have other presidents and elected officials crossed the line from time to time.  Indeed, it is often a struggle to keep from doing so.  It is the age-old struggle of good and evil.  But that is a far cry from a national leader who consciously and purposely looks for every conceivable opportunity to cross the line and claim it as a badge of honor to his “base”.

Nations can and have lost their soul.  America must not let that happen here.

Memories of Days Gone By

Author: Gary Hart

In a recent talk to a large Colorado political group, I indulged in memories.

I remembered President Ford offering me a ride in Marine One from Andrews Air Force Base to the White House.

I remembered calling President Ford’s chief of staff, Dick Cheney, on behalf of the Director of the CIA, on Christmas Eve to request Presidential approval to have Richard Welch, station chief in Athens, to be buried with honor at Arlington after having been killed by terrorists.

I remembered becoming close friends with John McCain during Navy travel and participating in both his wedding and his funeral.

I remembered Vice President George H.W. Bush offering me the use of his home in Maine during my 1984 presidential campaign and then reminding him that I was running against his administration.

I remembered Senator Barry Goldwater coming to Colorado in 1980 during my re-election campaign in 1980 and telling the press I was “the most honest and moral man” he had ever met in politics.

I remembered becoming very good friends even to this day with Senator Bill Cohen of Maine and writing books with him.

I remembered being co-chair with Senator Warren Rudman of the historic U.S. Commission on National Security for the 21st Century for almost three years.

These and other similar memories are significant not because they involved me, but because none of these experiences would happen today.  They all involved leading Republicans in those days not too long ago.

Bipartisanship did not just fade away.  It was consciously and purposely destroyed by State legislature gerrymandering, focus on wedge issues including abortion and gun control, systematic replacement of moderate Republican leaders by right wing zealots, demonization of Democrats, voter suppression in minority communities, refusal to confirm Democratic appointment of judges, and much else.

All this and more required time, effort, planning, and a lot of money.  Most recently, it required destruction of as much of the Obama administration’s domestic and foreign policy as possible.

And now, even in recent hours, it required Republican Senators to bow before the man in the White House who considers them his lackeys and refuse to condemn his illegal and unconstitutional behavior.

This is polarization meant to last long into the future or at least until the next depression or world war.

No one can read the minds of those Republican Senators.  But it is difficult to avoid the conclusion that fealty to the authoritarian in the White House in the interest of maintaining an office has replaced statesmanship, the national interest, and personal integrity.

Discover a way to cast votes on conviction of impeachment by secret ballots and you will find out how many Republican Senators sold their souls to cling to office.

Will there ever be a time characterized by experiences such as mine?  I don’t know.  But I pray, for my country, that such a time will come.

 

Deviance

Author: Gary Hart

My late friend and former colleague, Daniel Patrick Moynihan, was a man for the words.  One of the many phrases for which he was known had to do with his pithy summary of the trend toward avoiding responsibility and accountability.  “Defining deviance downward” was his phrase for this trend.

In less colorful language, this meant reducing blameworthy conduct.

Inevitably, there would be a president that would represent this tendency in the White House.  And here we are.

Decades from now the Republican defense of Donald Trump will be a classic case of defining deviance downward.

“He did nothing wrong,” is the creaky foundation upon which his defense for seeking to suborn an ally head of state, by withholding duly authorized American assistance for Ukraine’s defense against Russian encroachment, to further the Trump re-election.

By any standard of statecraft, this behavior was about as deviant as you can find.  And yet, “he did nothing wrong.”

As others have repeatedly said, if this isn’t impeachable, then nothing is.

And that is the Trump danger in a nutshell.  Almost daily we are treated to yet another incident of deviant behavior.  And the base roars its approval.  His Party’s elected representatives remain silent or take to the Fox airwaves to cheer and applaud.

We are seeing the historic United States ship of state sailing further and further from its traditional course, its Constitution, its principles, its purpose, and its beliefs.  Deviance is the word for this.

Behavior we used to decry and condemn now is laughed at and passed over.  This isn’t just a man-child misbehaving.  It is the leader of our nation redefining acceptability.

How many times in the future will deviant behavior be excused with the argument that “Trump did it and no one cared.”

He is crude, rude, arrogant, and untrained, an eighth-grade schoolyard bully who calls his opponents silly names and dares anyone to challenge him.

He is not just challenging decorum and civilized behavior, he is trampling on the rule of law, the traditions of enlightened civility, and the Constitution he swore to uphold.

Hypocrisy is unleashed and it the rule of the day.  Increasing numbers of commentators rightly point out that the Republican response if this behavior were committed by a Democratic president would be shock and horror.  Trump has turned his entire political party into hypocrites.

The evil that men do lives long after them.

What lessons are today’s young people learning from all this?  Surely, that lying is ok.  Behaving ignorantly is ok.  Calling distinguished leaders childish names is ok.  Pretending to govern the nation from a White House that is a charade of chaos is ok.  Refusing to accept responsibility is ok.  Trashing military and intelligence officials responsible for our national security is ok.  Advocating for U.S. corporations to bribe foreign officials is ok.

If, as I still believe, there is justice in the world…sometimes delayed, then his judgment will come for his deviance.  Justice may be delivered by the American people at the ballot box.

If not, however, history will surely be his final judge, and it will not be a pretty verdict.

 

 

 

America On Trial

Author: Gary Hart

The incumbent president now faces trial in the Senate of the United States.  Donald Trump will either be convicted or not.  Having been Impeached by the House of Representatives, it is too late to be exonerated.  A majority of Senators of his own party cannot erase the impeachment.

But historically much more is at stake.  Members of Congress, House and Senate, are all judged politically by many votes.  On rare occasions, such as this one, each is judged morally as well.

Now each Senator, including those who claim already to have made up their minds, will be judged by their final judgment on whether or not to convict under the two impeachment articles.

For complex reasons, more comparisons are being made between the Trump impeachment and the threatened Nixon impeachment than the impeachment of Bill Clinton.  And increasingly focus is being placed on how Republicans in the House and Senate responded to charges against Nixon as facts unfurled.

A number of Republican House members announced support for impeachment as evidence of the president’s involvement in “Watergate” was unveiled.  But even as an increasing number found themselves abandoned by Nixon’s behavior, many stayed by his side.

Before an impeachment vote could take place in the House, there was the famous scene where Mr. Republican himself, Senator Barry Goldwater, went to the White House to tell the president that he had lost his Party.  Marine One was soon waiting to take him away.

Though daily, stone by stone, evidence of culpability is added to a wall the president does not want.

No helicopter awaits this president so long as he continues to intimidate the Republican members of the Senate.

But, as John Kennedy once said, sometimes Party loyalty demands too much.

That is the issue facing Republicans in the Senate.

Each will be judged for the rest of their lives by this vote.

The evidence is beyond dispute that Donald Trump was responsible for the actions established in the impeachment indictment.  Further, it is beyond dispute that those actions violated the Constitution and the laws of the United States each took an oath to preserve and defend.

Sure, red State Republican Senators who vote against impeachment will be welcomed as heroes upon returning home.

But how will they be judged by history?

Given the enormous responsibility of a United States Senator bound by his or her oath, not to a president, but to the Constitution and the American people, how does someone violating that oath against facts and evidence hold his or her head up in public, or even more important, before one’s own children.

Judgment, both moral and historical, awaits Donald Trump.  But judgment also awaits those who have the profoundly important responsibility to judge him.

Who among us would want to spend our remaining years, however long they may be, living with the knowledge that we violated our oath of office, the Constitution, and most importantly, our own conscience?

For what?

For an office?  For approval by our political allies, as corrupt as we are?

Is there any office in America or in the world worth our immortal soul?

A vote to exonerate a man who has demonstrated no conscience is a vote to sacrifice one’s own conscience…and to never be able to get it back.

 

The Real Economy: Rosy or Grim

Author: Gary Hart

Like many who occupy the periphery of American politics, I too readily accepted the conventional wisdom that presidents serving during a strong economy virtually always are re-elected.  Thus, predict the conventional wise people, Donald Trump will be re-elected.

Wrong, says my son John who knows a lot more about a lot of things, including economics, than I do.  Instead of insisting I take his word for it, he provides hard evidence, the kind conventional political journalists seem to ignore.

Most recently there is the Brookings Institute study that demonstrates the following facts (in this era where facts are dismissed by those in power): despite an official unemployment rate of 3.5% cheered to the rafters by the “base” (composed of those as ignorant of economics as I am), 53 million workers—44 % of all workers—earn barely earn enough to live on.  They are employed but scraping by.  Their median income is $18,000 a year.

As Brookings points out, these are by no means young people just getting started. Two thirds of these low wage workers are in their prime working years between 25 and 54.  Most are primary wage earners working full time.  “Millions of hardworking American adults struggle to eke out a living and support their families on very low wages.”

Under the rosy employment number, this is the reality.  The current administration, taking over from the Obama recovery, has not improved their economic conditions at all.  The stock market is up…for those who own stock.  Corporate profits are up, thanks largely to the budget busting tax breaks Trump gave them, and then used to buy back their own stock, not raise wages, employ more people, or invest in equipment.

So, there is the superficial economy, rosy, and there is the real economy, pretty grim.

With some notable exceptions, the American people are not stupid.  We know how the top one percent or top ten percent will vote.  What about the 53 million working people struggling to get by.

Trump has had almost a full term to lift the working poor up and he has failed.

Instead, we have trade wars with China, “easy to win” according to the “art of the deal” president sheltering in Mar-a-Lago.  That costs 28 billion dollars and counting just to bail out farmers who lost their principal markets.

I know firsthand people with advanced degrees and impressive resume`s who cannot find work in this economy.  Education is part of the solution but offers no guarantees.

The array of Democratic presidential candidates tries to make these arguments.  But too often they get drowned out by the incessant polls, fund raising reports, stories about squabbles, who’s up and who’s down, inside political baseball.

America’s real economy is not in good shape.  A variety of indices show “basic cost of living (housing, food, childcare, transportation, health care, taxes) frequently outpace earnings from low-wage jobs, even in families with more than one worker.”

A cautionary word: don’t accept quarterly job numbers, stock market ratings, and administration propagandists as the sole and most reliable indicators of economic health.

Having a job satisfies one number.  Earning enough to live on decently is quite another and hopefully will drive the outcome of this year’s election.

There is a deal, green or otherwise, out there to be made.  But it won’t be made by this president.

 

Assassination Redux

Author: Gary Hart

In 1975, the Director of the CIA testified before a secret hearing of the Senate Select Committee to Investigate the U.S. Intelligence Community that there had been assassination plots against as many as six foreign leaders in recent years, several against the Cuban leader Fidel Castro.  I am now one of only a few surviving members of that Committee.

This became something of a turning point in U.S. foreign, military, and security policies at the height of the Cold War.  To say this revelation “shocked the conscience of the nation” is probably an overstatement.  But it did bring even the most hawkish Cold Warriors up short, and after discussion and deliberation, a popular consensus formed, reflected in the Congress itself, that assassinations aimed at foreign leaders violated unwritten moral codes defining American itself and serve no useful purpose in disabling communism or any other undemocratic ideology.

Legislation outlawing government sponsored assassinations, though introduced, never achieved passage into law.  But President Gerald Ford issued an executive decree forbidding our Government from resorting to its use.

Years passed, then came 9/11 and shortly thereafter a “war on terrorism”.  New language is normally used to circumvent established policy.  So, assassination became “targeted killings” under both Presidents W. Bush and Barack Obama.  They became ubiquitous and were often justified as saving lives.  By targeting leading terrorists with 50 caliber long-range rifles and, more recently, sophisticated drones with air to ground missiles, collateral damage to innocent civilians in the area was limited in ways conventional bombs would not.

On complex issues of this sort, there is a scale of extreme pragmatism on one end and extreme moralism on the other.  Knock out bad guys every chance you get versus assassination by any other name is still contrary to American values.

Now, let’s complicate things even further by layering on a heavy coat of politics.  It requires no genius to understand a president under impeachment might be tempted to look for dramatic ways to change the channel or at least move the impeachment debate off the front page.

We will never know the answer to what evil lurks in the hearts of men, particularly when the drone strike kills a leading military figure proclaimed to be planning near term strikes against American targets.  What intelligence resources might be compromised by providing evidence of this?, reasonable people might ask.

There is abundant evidence that a practice used once soon becomes standard.  We did it once, why can’t we do it again…and again?  Or, President T did it; why can’t President B?  The extraordinary thus becomes ordinary.

Is there something deep in the American character that calls us to higher behavior?  That is worth discussing…at length.  But alongside that discussion is the practical one.  Was this Iranian general unique in the sense he cannot be replaced?  Highly unlikely.  Then, except for some Fox News chest-pounding, what has been achieved?  A demonstration that this president is tough.  So what?  George W. Bush was tough, and we lost 3000 Americans on his watch.

In so doing, traditional military thinking, founded on the human instinct for survival, went out the window.  Take away the survival instinct, and a person is capable of almost any act of destruction.

As cited before, the ancient Native American challenge: Accept your death, and become dangerous.

If the incumbent president has thrown the Ford doctrine out the window, we are back in the assassination business, even if we clean it up a bit by “targeted killing” window dressing.

It is thus for the few remaining statesmen and women to convene serious discussions about its effectiveness, its political, as well as military, implications, its poisoning of traditional diplomacy (though those in leadership disdain it), its achievement of any meaningful objective.

If American is back in the assassination business, someone needs to be honest about it.  In the case of an aging veteran of the previous assassination era, I am ready to testify it isn’t worth it.

 

The Sleep of Idealism

Author: Gary Hart

Idealism, perhaps the highest function of conscience, is asleep now.  Idealism is a soft virtue.  It is not aggressive as is eagerness for wealth, or the scramble for power, or the need to be among the influential.  Instead, idealism suggests a search for a more noble vision and a sense that we have a duty of care.

No challenges to our collective conscience are heard from high places.

Most news stories are about conflict, violence, or traumatic events.  Families on our border are shattered and living in miserable conditions.  The corporate world leaves concerns about our future climate to young people.  Our nation’s capital is shrouded in anger and hostility with little if any motivation for public service.

Money, usually hidden in the corridors of power, now openly controls virtually all our public policies.  The guardianship of our public resources has been blatantly turned over to those who seek to privatize them for private wealth.  There is a giant revolving door between the White House and the upholstered caves of the lobbyists nearby.

A survey of present social and political conditions is bound to depress.  It offers no glimmer of hope or promise.

As a recent column in the New York Times observed: when leaders systematically lie, “the danger is that we grow so weary and cynical that we withdraw from civic engagement” and fail to engage in the political process.

And yet, as glimmers of hope often unreported, acts of mercy and kindness are carried out every day.  There are private charitable agencies and warm-hearted individuals who seek to care for the broken immigrant families on our borders.

Years of effort by volunteer researchers and lawyers free inmates unjustly imprisoned after years of incarceration.  Young people with great hearts work to feed hungry children.  Unsung private groups build houses for the homeless.  Meals are delivered to shut ins.  The elderly in assisted living are treated to music by volunteer musicians.

Where does goodness come from in a world of greed and selfishness?  Much from religious convictions and training.  Much from kind parents who teach sharing and concern.  But there is much that comes from the individual human heart.  We often call this conscience.

Are we born with a conscience or must it be learned?  Why does it make us feel good when we have helped someone in need?

Cynics say we are “salving our conscience” by putting a bill in the Salvation Army bucket.  The idealist says we are responding to deeply held convictions in our very soul.

There will be no final resolution of these kinds of questions while on this earth.  But we desperately need a revival of conscience after years of neglect and selfishness.

There is a close connection between idealism and conscience.  The idealist is driven by conscience.  The idealist sees the gap between what is and what ought to be and tries to close that gap.  But the first step is to envision what ought to be.  Our conscience tells us.

Idealism is not dead.  But with notable exceptions it is sleeping.  Politicians, even idealistic ones, are reluctant to appeal to idealism for fear of seeming dreamy and out of touch with what we call reality.

Among the many presidential candidates, we still wait to hear any one of them say, “ask what you can do for your country.”  It is a challenge to idealism.  It is a challenge to our conscience.

[And to all my friends a very Happy New Year!]

Greetings for This Season

Author: Gary Hart

Among the many things for which I am thankful, this small but persistent network of thoughtful people is one.  Decency and common respect in the expression of opinions, especially on highly volatile subjects, is now more rare than it used to be.

Even our friendly virtual neighborhood is a blessing in a world that seems occasionally inclined to tear itself apart.  Perhaps this is where society is headed, not to the arenas and grand ballrooms of the like-minded but to places where thoughtful people with shared concerns can find a forum to discuss those concerns with respect and civility.

There is much these days to make sensitive and sensible people sad.  But there are enough lights in enough windows to give us direction and even hope for a better tomorrow.

In an age of diversity, we are people of different faiths, or no faith at all, different histories and cultures, and different political opinions and ideologies.  But people of good will all want things to be better, less hatred and division and much more common understanding and tolerance.

So, to all my friends within this circle, Merry Christmas, Happy Hanukkah, a joyous Kwanzaa, and blessings on many faiths.

Lift up your eyes to the stars, help those in need of help, march on, and most of all keep that light in the window for the weary traveler and the lost soul searching for home.

Gary

 

Democracy in Peril

Author: Gary Hart

Across several weeks our colleague Michael has raised serious questions about the future of democracy in America and elsewhere.  The questions he has raised and arguments he has made deserve equally serious consideration.

Increasingly the media are focusing on the rise of disinformation in campaigns, the challenge to factual narratives by false ones, the erosion of truth itself, and the use of social media to undermine and replace traditional reporting by “fake” media.

All this may or may not be “populist”, but it is most certainly authoritarian, the acquisition and concentration of power in the hands of the few by undermining the world of facts and truth.

There are many examples of this process throughout history, but none better than Germany and Italy in the 1930s.  Uncouple political narrative from truth and the train of authoritarianism is well down the track.

This process is enabled when there is widespread distrust of government, encouraged by anti-government political media, demonization of immigrants, replacement of reliable democratic alliances with dictator friendships, distrust and even hatred toward domestic political opposition, perversion of elections, dismissal of public ethics and morality, and replacement of necessary public information by propaganda.

Whether the U.S. national election of 2020 will prove to be a hinge of history remains to be seen.  But it is not too soon to worry about this and its consequences.  Once eroded, democracy is difficult to repair and recapture.  And the forces of erosion are closing in.

The authoritarian pattern further rejects the empirical world of science, thus leading to denial of climate change even as destructive evidence of it mounts daily.  But if you believe Barack Obama was born in Kenya, you will believe anything.  And once that pattern begins, there is no end to it.  The Authority can and will tell you preposterous lies and you cheer him onward.

The Authority high jacked an entire American political party.  Where is the limit?  Can an entire nation be highjacked?  Twentieth century world history proves yes.  And tens of millions of people died.

If Donald Trump loses re-election narrowly next fall and refuses to leave the White House, claiming election fraud, do not be surprised if Fox News broadcasts his call for support from the “base” and tens of thousands surround the White House.  The Secret Service does not have the manpower to manage such a situation.

Who has the authority under the Constitution to request, if not command, military assistance?  The current Attorney General, now a full-fledged presidential assistant, will not seek a court order for military intervention.  But even if he did, there is no guarantee the current Supreme Court would uphold it.

Scenarios such as this can and will be dismissed as darkly pessimistic speculations of a profoundly concerned American.  But it has happened before, thankfully not in America, and it can happen again given how much has changed in the past three years.

After all, we do have a president and presidential supporters for whom their motto is: “Who are you going to believe…me or your lying eyes?”